The gap between the welfare level of rural communities and the city became a vital issue to be discussed at this time. Media Indonesia said Indonesia’s economic growth is considered not yet inclusive and is unable to answer the problem of income inequality. Economic gaps still occur because the government has not seriously considered oriented towards the creation of a equitable economy. From BPS data 2010, Indonesia Gini Coeffecient edged down just 0.12 over the last five years. Gini Coeffecient of 0.331 recorded in 2010, while in 2005 at the 0.343 level. However, it also revealed that income improvements occurred only in urban, from 0.362 in 2009 to 0.352 in 2010. In contrast, income inequality in rural communities to widen even more Gini Coeffecient rose from 0.288 to 0.297.
As a result of this prosperity gap levels arise various problems that we can not take lightly. Issues such as the disintegration of the nation, distrust to government, destruction of infrastructure and other so often occurs in response to the injustice felt by the community.
Shortage of venture capital to develop agriculture and farm by village communities may also lead to national food security to be disturbed. No wonder to this day we still import a variety of basic needs that should Indonesia is rich in it but due to lack of capital to cultivate it, we can not use it.
To find a solution to this problem we can use the opinions of Amarthya Sen, 1998 Nobel Prize winner in economics about the causes of poverty. He said that the poverty, helplessness, and underdevelopment is the accessibility issue. In this case, the poverty resulting from the limitations of access to capital money. The village is difficult to develop community economic activities due to the difficulty of getting capital money because the majority of the money just spun in the town. The institution became a mainstay in the settlement of the availability issue of capital is banking. Banking is considered the backbone of the nation’s economy. But, with the tight policy of banks, small communities that desperately need access to capital to maintain their lives cannot be terfasilitasi. Short said, the bank has not believed in the small community.
It is this factor that led to Muhammad Yunus founded the Grameen Bank. A bank that is willing to lend to small communities without collateral. With the Grameen Bank, Muhammad Yunus is considered inappropriate to get the Nobel prize because of the success in the Cup brought prosperity to the people of Bangladesh. However, the success obtained by the Grameen Bank is unable to make the public forget the bad impact caused. Prof. Mannan mention the interest rate on loans was 54 per cent of Grameen Bank. Not only up there, if hidden costs (hidden costs, such as membership fees, documentation, an obligation the provision for the amount of funds blocked and so on) are taken into account. Then surely the flower level reached 86 per cent. Village called Hillary Palli which is always a village pride (show-piece village) Grameen Bank. It was reported that conditions deteriorated, the village was so that people in General don’t get out of debt to revel in the Grameen Bank after 12 years. Many of these villagers are then ‘ forced ‘ to sell their land, so that they become people who do not have land within the meaning of truth.
Institutions are a mainstay in resolving the problem is the banking capital availability. Banks are considered the backbone of the nation’s economy. However, with banks tightening policy, a small community which was in desperate need of access to capital to sustain their lives can not be facilitated. In short, the bank has not yet believe in small communities.
It is this factor that led to Muhammad Yunus founded the Grameen Bank. A daring bank that lends to small communities without bail. With the Grameen Bank, Muhammad Yunus is considered worthy of the Nobel Prize as successful in bringing prosperity to the people of Bangladesh. However, the success obtained by the Grameen Bank is not able to make people forget about the negative impact. Prof Mannan said the loan interest rate at Grameen Bank is 54 percent. Not only there, when the hidden costs (such as membership fees, documentation, liability provision on the amount of blocked funds, etc.) taken into account. Then the real interest rate reached 86 percent. Village called Hillary Palli has always been the Grameen Bank’s Village Pride (a show-piece village). Reported that the deteriorated condition of this village, so that people can not get out of debt to the Grameen Bank after 12 years. Many of these villagers are then ‘forced’ to sell their land, so that they become people who do not have any land in the real sense.
Actually, the profit-sharing system that could be a solution to the problem of welfare has been handed down to mankind from the Creator. Profit-Sharing system are considered capable of bringing partisanship to small communities. Borrowers have an equal footing with lenders. Both share the risk. When borrowers get the benefit, then the lender to get the benefits of ownership in accordance with the portion and total profits. However, when borrowers experience losses that are beyond his power, both parties are equally experienced losses. So, the lender is not the feudal who always gets hit without going to know the circumstances of the person who borrowed assets.
In conclusion, profit-sharing based system has been proved more superior than interest-based system. When 1998 Monetary Crisis in Indonesia, Bank Muamalat Indonesia that implemented profit sharing system was resistant, while the interest-based one were sinking. And, profit-sharing is just one sample of many successful practices in islamic economics. So, want to join studying Islamic Economic with us?
Departement of Syariah Entrepreneurship
Jamaah Shalahuddin UGM